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About Stainless Steel
In metallurgy, stainless steel (inox) is defined as a ferrous alloy with a minimum of 10% chromium content. The name originates from the fact that stainless steel does not stain, corrode or rust as easily as ordinary steel. This material is also called corrosion resistant steel when it is not detailed exactly to its alloy type and grade, particularly in the aviation industry. It is this addition of chromium that gives the steel its unique stainless, corrosion resisting properties. The corrosion resistance and other useful properties of the steel are enhanced by increased chromium content and the addition of other elements such as molybdenum, nickel and nitrogen.

Types of stainless steel
There are different types of stainless steels: when nickel is added, for instance, the austenite structure of iron is stabilized. This crystal structure makes such steels non-magnetic and less brittle at low temperatures. For higher hardness and strength, carbon is added. When subjected to adequate heat treatment these steels are used as razor blades, cutlery, tools etc.

Significant quantities of manganese have been used in many stainless steel compositions. Manganese preserves an austenitic structure in the steel as does nickel, but at a lower cost.
Stainless steels are also classified by their crystalline structure:

Austenitic stainless steels comprise over 70% of total stainless steel production. They contain a maximum of 0.15% carbon, a minimum of 16% chromium and sufficient nickel and/or manganese to retain an austenitic structure at all temperatures from the cryogenic region to the melting point of the alloy. A typical composition is 18% chromium and 10% nickel, commonly known as 18/10 stainless is often used in flatware. Similarly 18/0 and 18/8 is also available. “Superaustenitic” stainless steels, such as alloy AL-6XN and 254SMO, exhibit great resistance to chloride pitting and crevice corrosion due to high Molybdenum contents (>6%) and nitrogen additions and the higher nickel content ensures better resistance to stress-corrosion cracking over the 300 series. The higher alloy content of "Superaustenitic" steels means they are fearsomely expensive and similar performance can usually be achieved using duplex steels at much lower cost.

Ferritic stainless steels are highly corrosion resistant, but far less durable than austenitic grades and cannot be hardened by heat treatment. They contain between 10.5% and 27% chromium and very little nickel, if any. Most compositions include molybdenum; some, aluminium or titanium. Common ferritic grades include 18Cr-2Mo, 26Cr-1Mo, 29Cr-4Mo, and 29Cr-4Mo-2Ni.

Martensitic stainless steels are not as corrosion resistant as the other two classes, but are extremely strong and tough as well as highly machineable, and can be hardened by heat treatment. Martensitic stainless steel contains chromium (12-14%), molybdenum (0.2-1%), no nickel, and about 0.1-1% carbon (giving it more hardness but making the material a bit more brittle). It is quenched and magnetic. It is also known as "series-00" steel.

Precipitation-hardening martensitic stainless steels have corrosion resistance comparable to austenitic varieties, but can be precipitation hardened to even higher strengths than the other martensitic grades. The most common, 17-4PH, uses about 17% chromium and 4% nickel.

Duplex stainless steels have a mixed microstructure of austenite and ferrite, the aim being to produce a 50:50 mix although in commercial alloys the mix may be 40:60 respectively. Duplex steel have improved strength over austenitic stainless steels and also improved resistance to localised corrosion particularly pitting, crevice corrosion and stress corrosion cracking. They are characterised by high chromium (19-28%) and molybdenum (up to 5%) and lower nickel contents than austenitic stainless steels.

EN-standard

Steel no.

EN-standard

Steel name

ASTM/AISI

Steel type

UNS
1.4016 X6Cr17 430  
1.4512 X6CrTi12 409  
1.4310 X10CrNi18-8 301  
1.4318 X2CrNiN18-7 301LN  
1.4307 X2CrNi18-9 304L S30403
1.4306 X2CrNi19-11 304L S30403
1.4311 X2CrNiN18-10 304LN S30453
1.4301 X5CrNi18-10 304 S30400
1.4948 X6CrNi18-11 304H S30409
1.4303 X5CrNi18 12 305
1.4541 X6CrNiTi18-10 321
1.4878 X12CrNiTi18-9 321H S32109
1.4404 X2CrNiMo17-12-2 316L S31603
1.4401 X5CrNiMo17-12-2 316 S31600
1.4406 X2CrNiMoN17-12-2 316LN S31653
1.4432 X2CrNiMo17-12-3 316L S31603
1.4435 X2CrNiMo18-14-3 316L S31603
1.4436 X3CrNiMo17-13-3 316 S31600
1.4571 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 316Ti S31635
1.4429 X2CrNiMoN17-13-3 316LN S31653
1.4438 X2CrNiMo18-15-4 317L S31703
1.4539 X1NiCrMoCu25-20-5 904L N08904
1.4547 X1CrNiMoCuN20-18-7   S31254

Grades - Chemical Composition and Equivalent Standards
 

AISI ASTM
EN DIN
C % Max
Mn % Max
Si % Max
S % Max
P % Max
Cr % Max
Ni % Max
Mo % Max
Others %
201
-
0.15
5.5-7.5
1.00
0.030
0.060
16.00-18.00
3.50-5.50
-
-
202 - 0.15 7.5-10 1.00 0.030 0.060 17.00-19.00 4.00-6.00 - -
302 1.4310 0.15 2.00 1.00 0.030 0.045 17.00-1900 8.00-10.00 - -
302HQ 1.4567 0.03 2.00 1.00 0.030 0.045 17.00-19.00 9.00-10.00 - Cu : 3.00-4.00
303 1.4305 0.15 2.00 1.00 0.15 Min 0.20 17.00-1900 8.00-10.00 - Cu : 1% max
303EHS - 0.15 2.00 1.00 0.30-0.33 0.20 17.00-19.00 8.00-10.00 - Cu : 1% max
304 1.4301 0.08 2.00 1.00 0.030 0.045 18.00-20.00 8.00-11.00 - -
304HC - 0.05 2.00 1.00 0.030 0.045 18.00-20.00 8.50-9.50 - Cu : 2.00-2.50
304L 1.4306 0.03 2.00 1.00 0.030 0.045 18.00-20.00 8.00-12.00 - -
308LER 1.4331 0.02 1.5-2.0 0.50 0.020 0.025 19.00-21.00 9.50-11.00 - -
309LER 1.4332 0.03 1.5-2.0 0.50 0.015 0.020 23.00-25.00 12.00-14.00 - -
310 1.4841 0.25 2.00 1.50 0.030 0.045 24.00-26.00 19.00-22.00 - -
310S 1.4842 0.08 2.00 1.50 0.030 0.045 24.00-26.00 19.00-22.00 - -
316 1.4401 0.08 2.00 1.00 0.030 0.045 16.00-18.00 10.00-14.00 2.00-3.00 -
316L 1.4404 0.03 2.00 1.00 0.030 0.045 16.00-18.00 10.00-14.00 2.00-3.00 -
316LER 1.4430 0.02 1.5-2.0 0.50 0.020 0.020 18.00-20..00 12.00-14.00 2.00-2.75 -
316Ti 1.4571 0.08 2.00 1.00 0.030 0.045 16.00-18.00 10.00-14.00 2.00-3.00 Ti : Min (5xC%)
317LN 1.4438 0.03 2.00 1.00 0.030 0.045 18.00-20.00 11.00-15.00 3.00-4.00 N : 0.10-0.22
321 1.4541 0.08 2.00 1.00 0.030 0.045 17.00-19.00 9.00-12.00 - Ti : Min (5xC%)
410 1.4006 0.15 1.00 1.00 0.030 0.040 11.50-13.50 - - -
416 1.4005 0.15 1.25 1.00 0.15 Min 0.060 12.00-14.00 - - -
416XM - 0.15 1.25 1.00 030-0.33 0.060 12.00-14.00 - - -
420 1.4021 0.15 Min 1.00 1.00 0.030 0.040 12.00-14.00 - - -
430 1.4016 0.12 1.00 1.00 0.030 0.040 16.00-18.00 - - -
430L - 0.03 1.00 1.00 0.030 0.040 16.00-18.00 - - -
430F 1.4104 0.12 1.25 1.00 0.15 Min 0.060 16.00-18.00 - - -
431 1.4057 0.20 1.00 1.00 0.030 0.040 15.00-17.00 1.25-2.50 - -

Benefits of Stainless Steel

• Corrosion Resistance • Fire And Heat Resistance
• Hygiene • Aesthetic Appearance
• Strength-To-Weight Advantage • Impact Resistance
• Lower Total Life Cycle Cost • 100%Recyclable

Theoritic Weight of Stainless Steel Round Bars

Size (mm) Weight kgs/ meter Size (mm) Weight kgs/ meter
2 0.025 16 1.595
3 0.056 17 1.801
4 0.100 18 2.019
5 0.156 19 2.250
6 0.224 20 2.493
7 0.305 21 2.748
8 0.399 22 3.016
9 0.505 23 3.297
10 0.623 24 3.590
11 0.754 25 3.895
12 0.897 26 4.213
13 1.053 28 4.886
14 1.221 30 5.609
15 1.402 32 6.382
34 7.204 85 45.026
35 7.634 90 50.479
36 8.077 95 56.244
38 8.999 100 62.320
40 9.971 105 68.708
45 12.620 110 75.407
50 15.580 115 82.418
55 18.852 120 89.741
58 20.964 125 97.375
60 22.435 130 105.321
65 26.330 135 113.578
70 30.537 140 122.147
75 35.055 145 131.028
80 39.885 150 140.220

Conversion of Inch to millimeter and their corresponding weight

Inch
Inch (Dec)
Size (mm)
Weight kgs/ meter
1/8"
0.125
3.175
0.063
3/16"
0.188
4.763
0.141
1/4"
0.250
6.350
0.251
5/16"
0.313
7.938
0.393
3/8"
0.375
9.525
0.565
7/16"
0.438
11.113
0.770
1/2"
0.500
12.700
1.005
5/8"
0.625
15.875
1.571
3/4"
0.750
19.050
2.262
7/8"
0.875
22.225
3.078
1"
1.000
25.400
4.021
1-1/8"
1.125
28.575
5.089
1-3/16"    1.188
30.163
5.670
3-3/16"    3.188
1-1/4"
1.250
31.750
6.282
1-5/16"    1.313
33.338
6.926
3-5/16"    3.313
1-3/8"
1.375
34.925
7.602
1-7/16"    1.438
36.513
8.308
3-7/16"    3.438
1-1/2"
1.500
38.100
9.046
1-5/8"
1.625
41.275
10.6171
1-3/4"
1.750
44.450
12.313
1-7/8"
1.875
47.625
14.135
2"
2.000
50.800
16.083
2-1/8"
2.125
53.975
18.156
2-3/16"    2.188
55.563
19.239
4-3/16"    4.188
2-1/4"
2.250
57.150
20.354
2-5/16"    2.313
58.738
21.501
4-5/16"    4.313
2-3/8"
2.375
60.325
22.679
2-7/16"    2.438
61.913
23.888
4-7/16"    4.438
2-1/2"
2.500
63.500
25.129
2-5/8"
2.625
66.675
27.705
2-3/4"
2.750
69.850
30.406
2-7/8"
2.875
73.025
33.233
3"
3.000
76.200
36.186
3-1/8"
3.125
79.375
39.264
80.963
40.850
5-3/16"    5.188
131.763 
3-1/4"
3.250
82.550
42.468
84.138
44.117
5-5/16"    5.313
134.938 
3-3/8"
3.375
85.725
45.798
87.313
47.509
5-7/16"    5.438
138.113 
3-1/2"
3.500
88.900
49.253
3-5/8"
3.625
92.075
52.834
3-3/4"
3.750
95.250
56.540
3-7/8"
3.875
98.425
60.372
4"
4.000
101.600  
64.330
4-1/8"
4.125
104.775
 68.414
106.363
70.503
-
-
4-1/4"
4.250
107.950 
 72.623
109.538 
 74.774
-
-
4-3/8"
4.375
111.125 
 76.958
112.713 
 79.172
-
-
4-1/2"
4.500
114.300 
 81.418
4-5/8"
4.625
117.475 
 86.004
4-3/4"
4.750
120.650 
 90.716
4-7/8"
4.875
123.825 
 95.553
5"
5.000
127.000 
 100.516
5-1/8"
5.125
130.175 
 105.605
 108.196
-
-
-
5-1/4"
5.250
133.350 
 110.819
 113.473
-
-
-
5-3/8"
5.375
136.525 
 116.159
 118.876
-
-
-
5-1/2"
5.500
139.700 
 121.624
5-5/8"
5.625
142.875 
 127.215
5-3/4"
5.750
146.050 
 132.932
5-7/8"
5.875
149.225 
 138.775
6"
6.000
152.400 
 144.743

Theoritic Weight of Stainless Steel Hex & Square Bars

Size (mm) Weight (Hex) kg/ meter Weight (Square) kg/ meter
5 0.172  0.197
6 0.248  0.283
8 0.441  0.504
10 0.689  0.787
12 0.992 1.134
14 1.350 1.543
15 1.550 1.771
16 1.763  2.015
17 1.991 2.275
18 2.232 2.551
19 2.487 2.842
20  2.755 3.149
21 3.038 3.472
22 3.334 3.810
24  3.967 4.534
25  4.305 4.920
27  5.021 5.739
28  5.400 6.172
30  6.199  7.085
32  7.053  8.061
34 7.963  9.100
35 8.438 9.643
36 8.927  10.202
38 9.946 11.367
40 11.021 12.595
42 12.150 13.886
45 13.948  15.941
50 17.220 19.680